New Cosmological TheoryUnification of the smallest with the greatestTranslation of an article in KONTAKT, the 1998 yearbook for the college Herlufsholm
Introduction
During the years I have shown that my quantum cosmological theory has
many
interesting consequences, a.o. that the gravitation in the Universe is
decreasing, and that 'everywhere' in the Universe some smallest
energy/matter quanta exist. These smallest energy/matter quanta - the
true atoms of the Universe - of which everything consists and which are
causing all effects, I have given the name unitons. Everything
in
existence and all effects are caused by the presence of unitons, by
their
geometrical distribution and their relative motions!
The existence of unitons can a.o. give a physical/mechanical
explanation
of the gravitational forces, and with my uniton-mechanical theory I can
give
a physical/mechanical explanation of Einstein's famous formula:
E = mc^{2}, as I can show that mc^{2}, where m is the
mass
of a definite amount of matter and c is the velocity of light, is an
expression of the total kinetic energy (motional energy) of the
unitons of which the amount of matter exists. That a 'system of
matter',
notwithstanding its chemical appearance, contains a total inner energy,
defined by its total mass and thereby by the number of unitons it
consists
of, is hereby quite understandable. A consequence of my theory for the Universe is a new theory, explaining the formation of stars and how the elements are created inside stars with simultaneous release of energy. The creation of elements and the release of energy inside stars is based on the existence of super nuclei, which are nuclei with extremely high nucleonic numbers. These super nuclei are supposed to be found in the inner of the stars, and by disintegration (division and emission of smaller clusters of nuclei) all the known elements are gradually created under simultaneous release of energy.
A new explosion theory for the development of our planet system
is
a logical consequence of my star theory. My theory for planet forming
is
completely different from the classical, which presumes that the Sun
and the
planets are formed by gravitational contraction and condensation of an
originally extremely great rotating dust and gas cloud, which all along
contained all the elements of which the planets now consist. In my
theory,
the matter of which the planets and their moons are made of, is
explosionally
slinged out from an already existing 'pre-sun'.
As a substitute for Einstein's gravitional theory and an extension of
Newton's
gravitational law, I have shown, that around gravitating masses in
relative
motion, there exist two gravitational fields, and that these
gravitational fields obey equations, mathematically equal to the
socalled
Maxwell equations, to which also electromagnetical fields obey. Besides
the usual
Newton gravitational field, there is a 'rotational field' - a
gravitomagnetic
field - around gravitating masses in relative motion. This 'rotational
field',
corresponding to the magnetic field around an electrically charged
particle
in motion, is in our epoch extremely weak and therefore difficult to
measure
with the measuring technique at our disposal. The 'rotational field'
was in
earlier epochs stronger and can maybe give a physical explanation of
the
rotation of galaxies.
A treatise containing my theories, with the main title 'Holistic
Quantum
Cosmology with Decreasing Gravity' has by now been published on the
Internet for more than two years. Interested persons can study the
theories
at the URL: http://louis.rostra.dk/
Comments
are very welcome. The classical physical theories are not consistent!
The physics of the present century has been characterized by three
great
theories, namely: 1) the quantum theory, 2) the special
theory of
relativity and 3) the general theory of relativity. The
quantum
theory was established in the year 1900, when the German physicist Max
Planck (1858-1947) discovered that the electromagnetic emission from
matter
is not emitted continuously and in arbitrarily small energy portions,
but on
the contrary in discrete and definite energy portions - energy
quanta
- also called photons. In the quantitative description of these energy
quanta
Planck introduced a characteristic physical quantity, which is known
under
the name 'Planck's constant', and which is denoted by the letter h.
This
constant appears in the quantum physical description of micro physical
processes, viz. phenomena taking place in microcosmos. In the
description of
daily and macroscopic phenomena, the very small value of Planck's
constant
- in SI-units - means that the quantum aspects are not clearly visible,
although these phenomena fundamentally may be a result of quantum
physical
processes. The quantum physical description was further developed and
applied
by a.o. Albert Einstein (1879-1955), who in 1905 gave an 'explanation'
of the
socalled photoelectric effect, and Niels Bohr (1885-1962), who in 1913
introduced the quantum conception when trying to 'explain' the
discontinuity
of light emissions from atoms.
The Austrian physicist Erwin Schrödinger (1887-1961) introduced in 1926
a
wave equation, continuous in space and time, which, when used on
atomic systems, gives solutions which are quantized, viz. where
some physical quantities can only take certain - discretely
distributed - values. Schrödinger's equation, which does not comprise
cosmological physical quantities - such as the mass of the Universe or
its
extension - is today still the base for quantum physics. Schrödinger
himself - being a nature/philosophical thinker - did not consider his
equation to reflect 'the true face' of nature, but more as a
provisional
solution, which, with lack of deeper understanding, might help us to
'understand' some of the natural processes.
The other great theories of the century are Einstein's socalled
'special
theory of relativity' from 1905, and the 'general theory of relativity'
from 1915, the latter being also a suggestion for a mathematical
geometrical
model of gravitation. In short Einstein's gravitational theory can be
expressed as follows: "The distribution of matter and energy defines
space-time geometry and space-time geometry defines how matter shall
move."
Both theories are in their mathematical-physical construction
continuous,
viz. they are not based on quantum physics. They assume a.o. that f.i.
space
and time are continuous quantities, which can be divided infinitely,
space down to mathematical points without extension! None of
Einstein's equations contain explicit micro physical quantities, like
f.i.
Planck's constant, which is a physical quantity which shall appear in
all
theories, describing and explaining that we live in a, fundamentally
seen,
'quantized universe'! Einstein's general theory of relativity can not
in
any understandable way explain anything taking place in microcosmos,
and
the theory breaks down in an 'infinity problem' if you try to use it on
the earliest times of the Universe. During the whole century physicists
have
tried to get a context between the quantum theories and Einstein's
general
theory of relativity. This has failed, which indicates that Einstein's
general theory of relativity from 1915 is not a 'true' theory, but only
a
possible mathematical model, which can 'explain' certain macroscopic
and
continuous natural phenomena. We can conclude that the physical
theories
of our century are not consistent! Quantization of space, time and matter As we can define all physical quantities using the fundamental physical quantities: 1) distance, 2) time interval and 3) mass, it seems logical and consequent that these three basical physical quantities should be basically quantized, as I would express it. These fundamental physical quantities exist in minimum values. When Niels Bohr in 1913 introduced the quantum conception, he started by quantizing a derived physical quantity, the socalled angular momentum of an electron, orbiting a center, f.i. around a proton in a hydrogen atom. This angular momentum is defined as the product of the electron's mass, its velocity and its distance from the orbit center. Niels Bohr thus did not assume that the basic physical quantities are quantized, but that this could be the case for quantities at a higher level. Quantization of the angular momentum implies mathematically/physically that also a quantity like the energy of a bound electron must be quantized, viz. that its energy can only take some quite definite values.
In established physics - which shall describe and 'explain' all
phenomena in
the Universe - it is assumed that distances and time intervals can be
split
up in indefinitely small quantities, viz. that these quantities are
continuous.
My quantum cosmological theory is based on the existence of a
physically
smallest distance - elementary length - with a value of
r_{0}
= 1.4 · 10^{-102} m (which means the comma shall be moved
102
places left!), a physically smallest time interval - elementary
time -
with the value of t_{0} = 4.7 · 10^{-111} s and a
variable actually smallest physical mass - elementary
mass -
with a present value of m_{u} = 2.2 · 10^{-68} kg.
(For comparison the mass of an electron is 9.1 · 10^{-31}
kg).
This smallest mass represents the smallest energy/matter portion in the
actual Universe, and as earlier mentioned, I call it a
uniton. Elementary length is equal to Planck's constant divided by the product of the total mass of the Universe and the velocity of light. Elementary time is given by the quotient between elementary length and the velocity of light. Elementary length and elementary time can be understood as 'the distance atom' and 'the time atom', respectively. Definite
physical lengths, time intervals and masses are equal to the
respective
elementary quantities multiplied by a natural number. Unifying micro- and macrocosmos. Holism. My discovery of a
context
between the physical elementary length, the actual extension of the
Universe
and the third power of the quotient between the electrostatic and the
gravitostatic forces between two electrons, denoted by N^{3},
has
the consequence - if we are living in an expanding universe! - that the
gravitational forces in the Universe are decreasing. The discovered
equation
(formula (1)) contains all the basic physical quantities, both from
microcosmos and macrocosmos, as we know them from physics, such as the
electrical charge of the electron, its mass, Newton's gravitational
'constant' (which in my theory is not constant), Planck's constant, the
velocity of light and, not least, the total matter/energy mass of the
Universe!! The latter I consider to be the most fundamental quantity
in the Universe. No previous theory has to my knowledge the total mass
of
the Universe as a fundamental quantity. I postulate that the most
fundamental
physical quantities are: elementary length, elementary time and the
total
matter/energy mass of the Universe. Formula (1), which I call 'the
quantum cosmological basic equation', depicts that the part and the
totality
interchange on a higher level - nature is holistic.
Formula (1)
In this formula, R is the actual extension of the Universe,
k_{c} is
Coloumb's constant, e is the charge of the electron, m_{e} its
mass
and G is Newton's gravitational 'constant', which in my theory varies
with the
expansive evolution of the Universe. h is Planck's constant,
c_{0}
the velocity of light and M_{0} the total matter/energy mass of
the
Universe. Elementary length is equal to the quotient between h and the
product of M_{0} and c_{0}. N gives the actual quotient
between the electrostatic and the gravitatostatic forces between two
electrons.
N^{3} plays the role as a cosmic evolution quantum
number,
that is a discrete parameter, 'ticking' up through the natural
numbers.
When the Universe was 'born', it had the value 1! The uniton-dynamical quantum universe. Gravity and electricity
When the Universe was 'born' within the first cosmic quantum time
interval
about 11 billion years ago, it had an extension equal to elementary
length
and it consisted solely of one quantum, called the cosmic
embryoton (the foster particle of the Universe). The evolution is
'controlled' by a cosmic evolution quantum number,
N^{3},
'ticking' up through the natural numbers. N is the actual quotient
between
the magnitude of the electrostatic and the gravitostatic forces between
two electrons. In our epoch N = 4.17 · 10^{42}. The
Universe
was 'born' when N had the magnitude 1. Gradually as the cosmic evolution quantum number got higher and higher values, the originally cosmic embryoton was divided in a number of elementary quanta - unitons - equal to the value of the cosmic evolution quantum number. This ever increasing number of unitons, each with smaller and smaller masses, are spread out in a constantly growing Universe. The Universe develops from - generally speaking - simpler and more concentrated states, to more complex and less concentrated states. A consequence of the growing value of N is a constantly decreasing gravity in the Universe. Just after the 'birth' of the Universe, the gravitational forces were N times greater than in our epoch. The present extension of the Universe is N^{3} = 7.2 · 10^{127} times elementary length, viz. 10^{26} meter. The number 7.2 · 10^{127} is also equal to the number of unitons in the present Universe, which gives a total mass of the Universe of 1.6 · 10^{60} kg. As the extremely high number of unitons are not all 'bound' in what we call matter, most unitons must be found in what we call vacuum. Thus the theory predicts the existence of a universal 'quantum medium', consisting of unitons, and which I shall call the cosmic uniton field. The unitons in this field move in all directions and with extremely high velocities. As a logical consequence of my cosmological theory I have established a uniton-dynamical and cosmologically dependent model of the electron. In this model electrons - of which all matter consist - are considered as active uniton-dynamical subsystems, in almost dynamical equilibrium in the cosmic uniton field. The context between gravitational forces and electrical forces is a consequence of another of my discoveries (Formula (2)), which gives a context between microcosmos and macrocosmos, namely that the quotient between the mass density d_{e} (or uniton density) of an electron and the average mass density, d_{cos}, (or uniton density) of the Universe, is equal to the number N. As consequences of the discovered equational contexts I have derived equations, allowing us to calculate the total mass of the Universe, its actual extension and age, by means of locally measured atomic physical quantities! Both the gravitational forces and the electrical forces between two electrons can be explained as a result of mechanical uniton pushing forces. What is the physical reason for the gravitational forces? Why does an apple fall to the ground? According to my uniton-mechanical theory, the explanation is: There is a greater total uniton pushing force - originating from the cosmic uniton field - on the side of the apple pointing away from the surface of the Earth than on the side pointing towards the Earth. This is due to the fact that the uniton density is smaller between the Earth and the apple than outside, because the two bodies 'shade' for the cosmic unitons! The result is that the two bodies, the Earth and the apple, are pushed together! The cause for gravitational forces can thus be understood by a simple, physical mechanism. Matter does not have a mystical attracting quality! And Einstein's abstract space-time geometrical model for gravity is not compatible with a nature, which functions on 'the principle of simplicity'. The electrical forces are of the same basical nature as the gravitational forces, also being due to uniton pushing forces, only with a strength N times greater. My uniton-mechanical theory explains why bodies with different masses - in vacuum - fall with the same acceleration, f.i. near to the Earth, an experimental recognition, demonstrated by Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) by his famous fall experiments, but which has been difficult to explain theoretically.
Formula (2)
In formula (2) r_{e} is the geometrical extension of an
electron.
The other quantities have been explained earlier. The absolute cosmological measuring units
The quantum physical elementary quantities - elementary length,
elementary
time and elementary mass, the actual mass of a uniton - represent
an
absolute and cosmological system of units, independent of
specific
local systems and living systems. I have introduced the following
notations
for the natural cosmological measuring units: 1) Elementary length, defining the physical distance unit: 1 spaton 2) Elementary time, defining the physical time unit: 1 tempon 3) Elementary mass, defining the physical mass unit: 1 masson
Actual extension: 7.2 · 10^{127} spatons Present age of the Universe: 7.2 · 10^{127} tempons Number of unitons presently: 7.2 · 10^{127}
When the Universe was 'born', within the first cosmic quantum time
interval,
all the above quantities were equal to 1! Measured in the units
introduced by men: meter, second and kilogram, we have: Present mass of the Universe: 1.6 · 10^{60} kg Present extension of the Universe: 10^{26} meter Present age of the Universe: 3.3 · 10^{17} sec Number of unitons in the present Universe: 7.2 · 10^{127}
Louis Nielsen, June, 1998. |